- 2013 Results
- 2012 Results
- 2011 Results
- 2010 Results
- 2009 Results
- 2008 Results
- 2007 Results
- 2006 Results
- 2005 Results
- 2004 Results
- 2003 Results
- 2002 Results
- 2001 Results
- 2000 Results
- 1999 Results
- 1998 Results
- Funding Information
- Staff Contacts
- Most Viewed
- By Topic
- EBRI Bibliography By Topic
- Data Book
- Facts from EBRI
- Fast Facts
- Issue Briefs
- Policy Books
- President’s Reports
- Press Releases
- Special Reports
- Benefit Bibliography
- Benefit FAQs
- Links to Other Internet Resources
- Reference Shelf
- Special Issues of Periodicals
- What’s New in Employee Benefits
Gender, Income, and Education Differences
While most issues showed remarkable uniformity between men and women, there were some areas in which differences between the sexes were notable.
- Women are more likely than men to indicate that the current health care system needs major changes (64 percent v. 53 percent). Women strongly support requiring employers to offer health insurance to their employees as a means of covering the uninsured (83 percent v. 71 percent of men).
- Women are less likely to receive health insurance from their employer (40 percent v. 55 percent for men); however, they are more likely to receive coverage from a spouse's employer (22 percent v. 8 percent).
- Women express higher levels of satisfaction with nearly all aspects of the health care they have received in the past 2 years. In general, one-half of women are extremely or very satisfied (50 percent), compared with 42 percent of men.
Income and Education Differences
- Americans with higher incomes tend to report more satisfaction with treatments and care they have received in the past 2 years. For example, 52 percent of those with annual household incomes of $50,000 or more are satisfied with the care they received, compared with 39 percent satisfied among those with less than $30,000 income. In addition, high-income individuals express more confidence than those with low incomes that in the next 10 years they will have access to quality health care and be able to afford it.
- College graduates and Americans with annual incomes of $30,000 or more are more likely to have health insurance, to receive that insurance from an employer, and to indicate that they are offered a choice of plans.
- Wealthy and highly educated respondents identify themselves as currently in managed care in higher proportions than those who are less educated and have lower incomes. Wealthy and highly educated respondents also give high marks to managed care health plans for their cost and access to preventive care.
- Those with lower education and income levels are the most likely to believe they have never been in a managed care plan and to report they are not familiar with managed care. Those without a college degree are more likely to say their opinions about managed care are based on what they've gathered from the media (33 percent v. 20 percent of college educated respondents).
- Americans with the lowest confidence that Medicare will continue to provide benefits equal to those received by retirees today are middle and high income Americans (59 percent of those with incomes of $30,000 or more are not confident, compared with 43 percent of those with lower income) and those who have had education beyond high school (57 percent, compared with 45 percent of high school graduates).
Source: 1998 Health Confidence Survey.
EBRI Research and Education Centers
- 401(k) Valuations Published: March 31, 2014 401(k) Balances and Changes Due to Market Volatility
- Data Book Last Updated: February 2013 A comprehensive collection of the most up-to-date benefit information available